Legal Approaches for Sustainable Wine Tourism Development by Dimitrios Mylonopoulos and Polyxeni Moira

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law shipwrecks discovered in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, amphorae from Chios, Thasos, Samos, and Rhodes have been found, findings that testify the commercial importance of Greek wine. It is indicative that each city-state had its own shape of amphora for its wine, which was sealed with a special stamp certifying the region of production. The ancient Greeks and Romans were faithful to wine and did not engage intensively in brewing as other peoples, for example, the Egyptians, Sumerians, and Chinese. In fact, although they recognized the healing properties of beer, they considered beer-drinking to be directed towards barbarians, referring to those considered simpler or less sophisticated compared to the Greeks and Romans. 2. Historical evolution of wine tourism (oenotourism) in Greece In the 21st century, tourism constitutes a primary source of development for Greece, contributing to job creation, promoting local and national growth, expanding the country's international relations, and showcasing Greek culture through gastronomy, art, and innovation. In Greece, both the public sector (state, local authorities, etc.) and the private tourism sector (e.g., accommodation facilities, restaurants, airlines, shipping companies, travel agencies, food production businesses, food retail stores, museums, exhibition spaces) recognize the significant role of local gastronomy and wine in enhancing the attractiveness of the offered tourist product. They also acknowledge their role in creating a local or national brand name. As a result, they invest in this area and undertake various initiatives. These initiatives may include promoting local culinary traditions and wine culture, supporting and showcasing regional food and wine producers, organizing gastronomic events and festivals, establishing wine routes and wine-tasting experiences, and collaborating with local communities to preserve and promote traditional recipes and food products. Overall, the recognition of the value of local gastronomy and wine in the tourism sector has led both public and private entities to invest in and promote these aspects to enrich the overall tourist experience and foster sustainable tourism development in Greece. These initiatives are diverse and often imaginative (such as cultural routes based on a specific product e.g., wine or olive oil, thematic museums e.g., wine museum, bread museum, etc.). In this context, efforts began to complement or diversify the offered tourist product on by developing products that complement and enhance the tourist experience. Thus, the development of new and alternative forms of tourism activities such as culinary tourism, olive tourism, and wine tourism emerged. These forms immerse visitors in the local traditions, culture, and heritage of each region, showing respect for the environment and the local communities. At the state level, the Greek Ministry of Tourism implements relevant policies. Specifically, through the Department of Special Forms of Tourism (Directorate General of Tourism Policy/Directorate of Strategic Planning), the necessary institutional framework is elaborated for the development of activities that utilize the cultural, historical, religious, folkloric, architectural, gastronomic, and oenological elements and characteristics of each region. According to the Greek Special Framework for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development in Tourism, gastronomic tourism holds a special place within cultural tourism and includes the development of organic products, quality assurance systems, and certification of their value and uniqueness (Law N. 4447/2016). Additionally, through the