Legal Approaches for Sustainable Wine Tourism Development by Dimitrios Mylonopoulos and Polyxeni Moira

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira Department of Quality Control and Standards Formation, quality labels are provided for Greek cuisine and individual products related to Greek gastronomy. Moreover, there are Quality Labels granted for accessible production units connected to food and beverages (Μυλωνόπουλος, 2021: 91). Furthermore, wine is considered a complementary product to gastronomic tourism in the Destination Action Plans for of the 13 Regions of the country (INSETE, 2022). These plans aim to develop integrated and high-quality experiences in gastronomic tourism and oeno-tourism activities and to cultivate the gastronomic and oenological identity of each region. They also focus on improving and developing infrastructure, among other aspects. The so-called "wine tourism or oeno-tourism9" is characterized by particularities, as the wine tourism product links agricultural production, processing, and service provision with local cuisine, traditions, and culture. In fact, the World Tourism Organization defines «Eno-tourism (Wine Tourism), as a sub-type of Gastronomy Tourism, refers to tourism whose purpose is visiting vineyards, wineries, tasting, consuming and/or purchasing wine, often at or near the source» (UNWTO, 2023). It is also important that the World Tourism Organization uses the Greek term "Enotourism or Oenotourism” alongside the term "winetourism," recognizing its ancient Greek origin. This form of tourism provides a holistic experience that allows visitors to immerse themselves in the world of wine, from its production to its consumption, while also exploring the cultural and culinary aspects associated with it. Due to the heterogeneous nature of wine tourism, the regulations and legislation governing its operation originate from different ministries, such as Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environment and Energy, Ministry of Culture and Sports, among others. These regulations directly or indirectly address various aspects, such as wine production protection, taxation, product promotion, etc. Additionally, the European Union is indirectly involved through rules concerning the quality schemes Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), and Geographical Indication (GI) (European Commission, 2023). This complex regulatory landscape reflects the multifaceted nature of wine tourism, which involves various stakeholders and aspects that need to be considered for its successful and sustainable development. The European Union highlights the importance of collaboration and coordination among various authorities to support and promote this form of tourism effectively. The first attempt to promote Greek wines, their marketing in both the domestic and foreign markets, and their connection to tourism was made in the early 1950s with the organization of the "Daphni Wine Festival" (Figure 2). In 1953, the 1st "Wine Exhibition" was organized at the Tourism Pavilion in Daphni, with the initiative of the Hellenic Touring Club (Σκιαδάς, 2020). The Greek National Tourism Organization joined the festival in 1955. The festival gradually evolved into a significant cultural event, attracting the interest of tourists who had the opportunity to taste Greek wines. Over time, it was enriched with artistic programs and various events. This early initiative played a pivotal role in laying the foundation for wine tourism in Greece, paving the way for further developments in showcasing the country's wine culture and traditions to both domestic and international visitors. 9 From Ancient Greek οἶνος (oînos, “wine”).