Legal Approaches for Sustainable Wine Tourism Development by Dimitrios Mylonopoulos and Polyxeni Moira

Legal Approaches for Sustainable Wine Tourism Development in Greece Dimitrios Mylonopoulos Professor, University of West Attica Polyxeni Moira Professor, University of West Attica 1. Introduction. The wine in ancient Greece Wine has a long history in Greece. In the Homeric poems, many regions and cities are characterized with names that testify the widespread cultivation of vines and winemaking in the Greek territory, such as Oinoe1, Oenus, Oenopoeias (Aegina), Oinousses2, Oinofyta3, and others. Homer describes Arne in Boeotia and Istiaia as "polystaphylon" (abounding in grapes), Epidaurus in Argolis as "ampeloessa" (abounding in vines), and Methoni in Messenia as "Pidasos ampeloessa" (abounding in vineyards). In Homer’s Iliad, Rhapsody IX, Nestor reminds Agamemnon that his Agamemnon’s huts are full of wine that the ships of the Achaeans bring him each day from Thrace. The ancient Greeks introduced the term "anthosmia" (meaning “bouquet”) which refers to the preferred aromatic scent of older wines like "saprias" (Γεραρή, 2007). On the island of Crete, there were systematic vineyard cultivations, while in the town of Archanes, the world's oldest winepress was found. The ancient Greeks worshiped the God Dionysus4, the deity of wine and revelry. Dionysus is depicted on vases and frescoes holding a bunch of grapes in one hand and a wine cup in the other, surrounded by Satyrs, Silens (or Silenoi5), and Maenads6 dancing around him in a state of ecstasy. Ancient Greek god Dionysus, (or Dionysos), is also called Bacchus in Rome (Figure 1) and Liber Pater, in Greco-Roman religion. He was a nature god of fruitfulness and vegetation, especially known as a god of wine and ecstasy (Britannica, 2023a). According to Greek mythology, Dionysus, the god of fertility and wine, gave birth to viticulture and spread wine throughout the world. When Ampelos, who was Dionysus’ lover, died, a vine grew from his body. Dionysus squeezed the grapes and produced the essence of drunkenness, the wine. 1 In Ancient Greek οἶνος (oînos) means “wine”, Οἰνόη (Oinoe) means "winy", Οινοποιάς (Oinopoias) means producer of wine, etc. 2 Group of islands in the Aegean Sea. The name means that they produce wine. 3 Vines. 4 Ancient Greek god Dionysus, (or Dionysos), is also called Bacchus in Rome and Liber Pater, in GrecoRoman religion. He was a nature god of fruitfulness and vegetation, especially known as a god of wine and ecstasy (Britannica, 2023a). 5 In Greek mythology, satyrs (Greek: σάτυρος) and Silens (or Silenoi (Greek: σειληνός), were male mythical creatures of the wild, part horse and part man. These beings in Classical times were closely associated with the god Dionysus. In the Hellenistic age they were represented as men having a goat’s legs and tail. (Brittanica, 2023b). 6 In Greek mythology, maenads (Ancient Greek: μαινάδες) or Bacchae (in Rome) were the female followers of god Dionysus.

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira Figure 1. Bacchus7 by Caravaggio-Gallery Uffizi, Florence Source: P. Moira, personal archive, 2016 In Ancient Greece, the "symposium," which means the gathering of people eating and drinking together, played an important social role and was more than just a meal. It was a ritual during which friendships, collaborations, and necessary alliances were forged through philosophical discussions, games, music, theater, and dance. It was a process beyond the act of eating, with an exceptionally significant social dimension. Plutarch, in his essay "Symposium of the Seven Sages", expressed the opinion that “eating alone does not mean that he eats, but that he has simply filled his stomach, like animals do.” (Πλούταρχος, Ηθικά, 158d), pointing out the social significance of food. Moreover, he also mentioned wine, which necessarily accompanies food, stating that “nor is that of Dionysus strong drink and wine, but rather the friendly feeling, the longing, the association, and the intimacy, one with one another, which they create in us through these agencies.” (Πλούταρχος, 156b). Plutarch emphasizes that the act of dining and drinking together in the symposium fosters social connections and bonds beyond the mere consumption of food and wine. In Greek symposia, wine flowed abundantly, facilitating communication among the participants and creating an ambiance conducive to the development of philosophical discussions. After having drunk wine, as “wine that maketh glad the heart of man” (Psalms 104:15 KJV), the participants would engage in circular dances. The wine was often diluted with water to delay drunkenness, ensuring a state of sobriety and mental alertness throughout the symposium, which could last for many hours, and sometimes even days. The enormous economic and social significance of wine resulted in its legal protection. We can say with certainty that the concept of "Designation of Origin" was established in ancient Greece. In various texts, we encounter designations of origin such as Chian wine, Lesbian wine, Thasian wine, and Pramnian wine (from Ikaria island8). Moreover, in many 7 The painting depicts Bacchus, reclining in front of a stone table, with grapes and vine leaves in his hair. He holds a glass of red wine, while on the table there is a bowl of grapes and other fruits, as well as a large carafe of red wine. 8 Chios, Lesbos, Thasos and Ikaria are Greek islands in the Aegean Sea.

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law shipwrecks discovered in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, amphorae from Chios, Thasos, Samos, and Rhodes have been found, findings that testify the commercial importance of Greek wine. It is indicative that each city-state had its own shape of amphora for its wine, which was sealed with a special stamp certifying the region of production. The ancient Greeks and Romans were faithful to wine and did not engage intensively in brewing as other peoples, for example, the Egyptians, Sumerians, and Chinese. In fact, although they recognized the healing properties of beer, they considered beer-drinking to be directed towards barbarians, referring to those considered simpler or less sophisticated compared to the Greeks and Romans. 2. Historical evolution of wine tourism (oenotourism) in Greece In the 21st century, tourism constitutes a primary source of development for Greece, contributing to job creation, promoting local and national growth, expanding the country's international relations, and showcasing Greek culture through gastronomy, art, and innovation. In Greece, both the public sector (state, local authorities, etc.) and the private tourism sector (e.g., accommodation facilities, restaurants, airlines, shipping companies, travel agencies, food production businesses, food retail stores, museums, exhibition spaces) recognize the significant role of local gastronomy and wine in enhancing the attractiveness of the offered tourist product. They also acknowledge their role in creating a local or national brand name. As a result, they invest in this area and undertake various initiatives. These initiatives may include promoting local culinary traditions and wine culture, supporting and showcasing regional food and wine producers, organizing gastronomic events and festivals, establishing wine routes and wine-tasting experiences, and collaborating with local communities to preserve and promote traditional recipes and food products. Overall, the recognition of the value of local gastronomy and wine in the tourism sector has led both public and private entities to invest in and promote these aspects to enrich the overall tourist experience and foster sustainable tourism development in Greece. These initiatives are diverse and often imaginative (such as cultural routes based on a specific product e.g., wine or olive oil, thematic museums e.g., wine museum, bread museum, etc.). In this context, efforts began to complement or diversify the offered tourist product on by developing products that complement and enhance the tourist experience. Thus, the development of new and alternative forms of tourism activities such as culinary tourism, olive tourism, and wine tourism emerged. These forms immerse visitors in the local traditions, culture, and heritage of each region, showing respect for the environment and the local communities. At the state level, the Greek Ministry of Tourism implements relevant policies. Specifically, through the Department of Special Forms of Tourism (Directorate General of Tourism Policy/Directorate of Strategic Planning), the necessary institutional framework is elaborated for the development of activities that utilize the cultural, historical, religious, folkloric, architectural, gastronomic, and oenological elements and characteristics of each region. According to the Greek Special Framework for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development in Tourism, gastronomic tourism holds a special place within cultural tourism and includes the development of organic products, quality assurance systems, and certification of their value and uniqueness (Law N. 4447/2016). Additionally, through the

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira Department of Quality Control and Standards Formation, quality labels are provided for Greek cuisine and individual products related to Greek gastronomy. Moreover, there are Quality Labels granted for accessible production units connected to food and beverages (Μυλωνόπουλος, 2021: 91). Furthermore, wine is considered a complementary product to gastronomic tourism in the Destination Action Plans for of the 13 Regions of the country (INSETE, 2022). These plans aim to develop integrated and high-quality experiences in gastronomic tourism and oeno-tourism activities and to cultivate the gastronomic and oenological identity of each region. They also focus on improving and developing infrastructure, among other aspects. The so-called "wine tourism or oeno-tourism9" is characterized by particularities, as the wine tourism product links agricultural production, processing, and service provision with local cuisine, traditions, and culture. In fact, the World Tourism Organization defines «Eno-tourism (Wine Tourism), as a sub-type of Gastronomy Tourism, refers to tourism whose purpose is visiting vineyards, wineries, tasting, consuming and/or purchasing wine, often at or near the source» (UNWTO, 2023). It is also important that the World Tourism Organization uses the Greek term "Enotourism or Oenotourism” alongside the term "winetourism," recognizing its ancient Greek origin. This form of tourism provides a holistic experience that allows visitors to immerse themselves in the world of wine, from its production to its consumption, while also exploring the cultural and culinary aspects associated with it. Due to the heterogeneous nature of wine tourism, the regulations and legislation governing its operation originate from different ministries, such as Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environment and Energy, Ministry of Culture and Sports, among others. These regulations directly or indirectly address various aspects, such as wine production protection, taxation, product promotion, etc. Additionally, the European Union is indirectly involved through rules concerning the quality schemes Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), and Geographical Indication (GI) (European Commission, 2023). This complex regulatory landscape reflects the multifaceted nature of wine tourism, which involves various stakeholders and aspects that need to be considered for its successful and sustainable development. The European Union highlights the importance of collaboration and coordination among various authorities to support and promote this form of tourism effectively. The first attempt to promote Greek wines, their marketing in both the domestic and foreign markets, and their connection to tourism was made in the early 1950s with the organization of the "Daphni Wine Festival" (Figure 2). In 1953, the 1st "Wine Exhibition" was organized at the Tourism Pavilion in Daphni, with the initiative of the Hellenic Touring Club (Σκιαδάς, 2020). The Greek National Tourism Organization joined the festival in 1955. The festival gradually evolved into a significant cultural event, attracting the interest of tourists who had the opportunity to taste Greek wines. Over time, it was enriched with artistic programs and various events. This early initiative played a pivotal role in laying the foundation for wine tourism in Greece, paving the way for further developments in showcasing the country's wine culture and traditions to both domestic and international visitors. 9 From Ancient Greek οἶνος (oînos, “wine”).

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law Figure 2. The Daphni Wine Festival, 1959 Source: Photographic archive from the MINOS winery - barrels with wine from various regions of the country. In 1959, winemakers from 84 regions of Greece participated in the Daphni Wine Festival (ΜΙΝΩΣ, 1959). However, there was no relevant institutional framework for conducting winetourism (oenotourism) activities until 2014 when Law no. 4276/2014 was enacted. Specifically, wine tourism was introduced as a special form of tourism under Article 25 of the law, and it is defined as a form of tourism that involves the provision of services of reception, guided tours, accommodation, and catering services in spaces functionally integrated with wineries or wine-producing facilities (vineyards). These services are offered in combination with activities related to vineyard cultivation and wine production. In fact, the legislator allows the establishment of non-primary tourist accommodation and catering facilities within the boundaries of wineries or wine-producing facilities, by way of derogation from the existing provisions (Law no. 4495/2017, Article 138). This allows wineries and wine-producing establishments to offer a comprehensive wine tourism experience, providing visitors with the opportunity to engage in the entire winemaking process, from vineyard to cellar, and to enjoy the local gastronomy along with wine tasting. According to Law no. 4582/2018 (Government Gazette A' 208) and Law no. 4759/2020 (Government Gazette A' 245), non-primary tourist accommodation is classified as: a) selfcatering accommodation - tourist furnished villas (villas), b) self-catering accommodation - tourist furnished residences, c) furnished rooms - apartments for rent. Therefore, these categories do not include hotels, organized camping sites, youth hostels, complex tourist accommodations, condo hotels, and small-scale mixed tourist accommodations (Mylonopoulos, 2022). The legislator seemed to intend to distinguish wine tourism from mass tourism and characterize it as a special interest form of tourism). This approach allows the development of small-scale wine tourism facilities, emphasizing the quality of the experience they offer and respecting the environment and sustainable development. This enables visitors to

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira enjoy a more authentic and engaging experience, surrounded by vineyard landscapes, participating in the wine production processes, and tasting local gastronomic products. As a result, wine tourism promotes the sustainability of the region and contributes to the preservation of cultural heritage and the environment. 3. Legal Framework of Wine Tourism (Oenotourism) 3.1. Definition Law no. 4582/2018 under the title "Thematic Tourism" identifies sustainable forms of tourism as those that attract visitors-tourists with specific interests, who seek to live authentic experiences showing respect for the environment. These forms of tourism encourage the interaction of visitors-tourists with the natural environment, the human factor, regions, and municipalities, promoting economic and social development and highlighting the unique cultural elements of each place. The characteristics that define the concept of thematic tourism are sustainable tourism development, special interests of visitors-tourists, authenticity of experiences, respect for the natural and cultural environment, human interaction and communication, local economic development, and local social development, in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals (Μοίρα, 2022: 251). In the same spirit, Article 4 of Law no. 4582/2018 defines wine tourism as an activity of rural tourism. The law reiterates the definition of wine tourism provided by Law no. 4276/2014, which is “…form of tourism that involves the provision of services of reception, guided tours, accommodation, and catering services in spaces functionally integrated with wineries or wine-producing facilities (vineyards)”. We observe that the legislator has incorporated wine tourism activities into rural tourism, while considering agrotourism as an independent form of thematic tourism. Additionally, it categorizes cultural tourism separately, overlooking the fact that gastronomic tourism, wine tourism, agrotourism, and fishing tourism in fact constitute cultural tourism as they allow the visitor to experience the culture of the farmer, the fisherman, the winemaker, etc. In fact, these activities are rather complementary to each other, and it is difficult to seek them individually, as the products used for preparing the food are agricultural, and wine is also an agricultural product, an essential component of the dining experience (Figure 3). According to the Law, a wine tourism facility is characterized as a winemaking or wineproducing establishment, provided that it meets the following conditions: a) within the boundaries of the facility, services are offered, such as guided tours, reception and hospitality in non-primary tourist accommodations, or catering, or a combination of these services, and b) it has spaces and facilities of specific standards that ensure visitation. Once again, we can observe the legislator's intention to develop wine tourism as a small-scale tourism activity showing respect for the environment.

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law Figure 3. Wine tourism in the Greek institutional framework (L. 4582/2018) 3.2. The Quality Label “Winery Open to the Public” The Quality Label “Winery Open to the Public” is granted by the competent Regional Tourism Directorate of the Greek Ministry of Tourism in the territorial jurisdiction of which the winemaking or wine-producing facility is located. It is a special logo (see Figure 4) that certifies the legal operation of a winemaking or wine-producing business as a wine tourism facility. The Label is valid for five years from the date of issue and it is revoked in case the business does not comply with the required specifications. The Ministry of Tourism maintains an Electronic Registry of Wine Tourism Businesses. THEMATIC TOURISM Rural tourism Agrotourism Wine tourism (Oenotourism) Ecotourism - Green tourism Walking routes -Hiking Geotourism Fishing tourism Sport tourism Airplain tourism Marine tourism Cultural tourism Gastronomy tourism Religiouspilgrimage tourism Conference tourism Health tourism

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira Figure 4. The Quality Label “Winery Open to the Public” The Label should be placed at the entrance of the winemaking or wine-producing facility. According to data from the Greek Ministry of Tourism until October 3, 2022, 102 wineries had been awarded with the Quality Label “Winery Open to the Public” (Table 1). Table 1. Quality Labels “Winery Open to the Public” per Region Regional Tourism Authority Number 1 Thessaly 4 2 Cyclades 9 3 Central Greece 5 4 Dodecanese 3 5 Western Greece 12 6 East Macedonia & Thrace 6 7 North Aegean 4 8 Western Macedonia 7 9 Crete 14 10 Epirus 2 11 Peloponnese 14 12 Central Macedonia 12 13 Attica 10 14 Ionian Islands 0 TOTAL 102 Source: Registry S.E.O. Greek Ministry of Tourism (έγγραφο ΑΜ 19496/11-10-2022) In fact, according to a survey conducted by the Ministry of Tourism, 100% of the businesses awarded with this Quality Label responded that it was an extra asset for their business (Υπουργείο Τουρισμού της Ελλάδας, 2021). 3.3. Specifications for facilities Specialized facilities are provided for the reception, guided tours, and hospitality of visitors to wineries and wine-producing establishments, based on specific standards depending on the type of accommodation being established. Thus, by virtue of Ministerial Decisions no.

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law 1746/2015 and 13143/2018, jointly issued by the Ministry of Rural Development and Food and the Ministry of Tourism, the technical, functional and special specifications were defined for wine tourism businesses as well as for the Quality Label “Winery Open to the Public”. More specifically, it is stipulated that: a) Wineries and wine-producing establishments must have either individually or in combination, a visitor’s area, a multi-purpose hall, a tasting area properly designed for wine tasting, as well as a space for displaying, presenting, and selling products. Furthermore, a designated person should be responsible for the reception of visitors throughout their tour. This person acts as a guide and is knowledgeable about the winemaking processes, history, and the products offered by the winery. Having a responsible person ensures that visitors receive accurate information and have a smooth and organized experience during their visit. Overall, these specifications aim to enhance the overall wine tourism experience by providing well-organized and visitor-friendly spaces, allowing guests to immerse themselves in the world of winemaking and wine culture. The wine tasting room must be equipped at least with the following items: i) wine tasting glasses (glass, stemmed, regardless of size), ii) spittoons, and iii) refrigerators or coolers that ensure the proper temperature of the wines (serving temperature). Additionally, the winery's premises must have appropriate signage displaying information about the opening hours and days as well as contact telephone numbers. There should be clear signage both inside and outside the winery's premises. Moreover, the winery area must have appropriate signage with information about the opening hours and days as well as contact numbers. In a prominent place in the reception area, the price list of the wines and the cost of the tasting as well as a price list of the other services provided must be displayed. Having proper equipment and signage in place enhances the professionalism of the wine tourism experience and ensures that visitors have a pleasant and well-organized visit to the winery. It allows guests to fully immerse themselves in the wine culture, learn about the wines produced, and enjoy a memorable tasting experience. According to the law, in order for a winery to receive the Quality Label “Winery Open to the Public”, it must have suitable facilities to accommodate persons with disabilities. This information should be communicated to the public through appropriate signage. Additionally, online, telephone, or printed information must be provided to the public. Regarding health aspects, the legislative framework stipulates the existence of toilets for men, women, and individuals with disabilities, ensuring the basic needs of visitors are met. Additionally, safety measures must be followed, and hazardous areas within the facility should be marked and fenced off, thereby safeguarding visitors and staff from potential hazards. This contributes to the accessibility of persons with disabilities to the winery's premises and ensures that they can enjoy the wine tourism experience without limitations. b) In non-primary hotel accommodations and in catering areas established within winemaking or wine-producing facilities, the specifications provided for furnished roomsapartments for rent and self-catering accommodations-tourist furnished residences must be followed. Accordingly, the specific operating conditions concerning the catering establishments must be met.

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira 4. Wine Tourism Networks The role of local associations of wine producers in developing wine tourism is crucial. In 1993, thirteen producers established a civil, non-profit company called the "Union of Wine Producers of the Vineyard of Macedonia" (Οινοποιοί Βορείου Ελλάδος, 2023). The initial goal of the Union is to support the Greek winemaking tradition and provide visitors with the opportunity to discover vineyards in Northern Greece. Using funding received from the organization "Thessaloniki Capital of Culture 1997," the Union took the initiative to create the first comprehensive wine tourism network of routes named "Wine Routes of Macedonia." Later, with financial support from the LEADER programs, the technical infrastructure of the network was modernized, and programs were implemented to train all stakeholders involved in the Wine Routes - both producers and others in the industry. Simultaneously, efforts were made to preserve and promote the cultural heritage of the regions crossed by the Wine Roads through various events, while international wine tourism conferences started being organized. In 2001, through the LEADER II program, the creation of the first visitable wineries was completed by developing appropriate infrastructure, gathering materials, and promoting and advertising them through mass media and exhibitions. In 2002, after the entry of new members from Thrace and Epirus, the Union was renamed as “Wine Producers Association of the Northern Greece Vineyard” and was rebranded "Wine Routes of Northern Greece" (Οινοποιοί Βορείου Ελλάδος, 2023). Businesses focused on either tourism or gastronomy, such as restaurants, accommodation, local product shops, travel agencies organizing alternative activities, and more, have gradually joined the network since 1998. In 2008 the expansion of the wine tourism network "Wine Roads of Northern Greece" was officially completed, with the integration of connected tourist enterprises (collaborating members) that complement the visitable wineries. The Wine Roads of Northern Greece are developed through eight wine routes that cover the region of Northern Greece. These routes were designed on the basis of different wine varieties produced in each area and according to their historical peculiarities (Karafolas, 2007). Each route showcases the unique wine production of its respective location and highlights the historical and cultural aspects that make it special. The wine itineraries follow the most picturesque points of a vine-growing zone, indicating visits to selected wineries for tasting local grape varieties and wines accompanied by traditional flavors of the region. They also include tours of traditional settlements, archaeological sites, museums. These routes are designed as a form of tourism that harmonizes perfectly with the natural environment and aims at providing an authentic experience of each place, delving into the tradition of viticulture and winemaking. Along the itineraries, restaurants, taverns, ouzeri10, and hotels offer quality hospitality, complementing the overall experience of getting to know Greece and its culture (Visitgreece, 2022). It creates an immersive experience that connects visitors with the local heritage, allowing them to explore and appreciate the unique winemaking traditions and cultural aspects of each region they visit. The wine routes in Northern Greece are as follows: 1. Wine Route of the Gods of Olympus 10 “Ouzeri” is a type of Greek tavern which serves ouzo (a Greek national drink) and mezedes (small finger foods).

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law 2. Wine Route of Epirus 3. Wine Route of the Lakes 4. Wine Route of Naoussa 5. Wine Route of Pella - Goumenissa 6. Wine Route of Thessaloniki 7. Wine Route of Chalkidiki 8. Wine Route of Dionysus Each route is designed to showcase the unique wine production and cultural heritage of the respective regions, providing visitors with a comprehensive and authentic wine tourism experience (Figure 5). According to the Association, the network laid the grounds for the development of wine tourism options in Greece and established wine tourism as a distinct category in the Greek tourism industry. This initiative also led to the establishment of two nationwide annual events, the "Open Cellar Doors" and the celebration of the "World Wine Tourism Day". The successful example of the Association above led other collective bodies in different regions of Greece to create winemaking networks with the aim of utilizing wine tourism. As a result, similar networks of winemakers-tourist routes were established, such as the "Wine Routes of Athens - Wines of Athens" (2014), the "Wine Routes of Crete" (Destination Crete, 2018), and more. Additionally, there are wine routes on the islands of the Aegean11, including participation from Lesbos, Lemnos, Chios, Oinousses, Psara, Samos, Santorini, Ikaria, and Fournoi. The network also includes all the Dodecanese islands and the Cyclades. These networks aim to promote local wine production and cultural heritage, attracting tourists interested in wine tourism experiences and offering them the opportunity to explore the diverse wine regions of Greece. Figure 5. Wine Routes of Northern Greece Editing: P. Moira 11 Since 2009, the Union of Winemakers and Viticulturists of the Aegean Islands (ENOAΝΑ) has been organizing and promoting the "Wine Routes of the Aegean" on each island and the initiative "Routes of Aegean Wine" covering the entire archipelago. See: Ένωση οινοποιών-αμπελουργών νήσων Αιγαίου (2017) at

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira In the Ionian Islands, visitors can follow the "Ionian Islands Wine Routes," while in the Peloponnese, they can explore the "Peloponnese Wine Roads" (Peloponnese Wine Roads, 2023). The project was co-financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and the Greek Government under the Local Program “LEADER Approach” Axis 4 of the Greek Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 (Measure 421a entitled “Peloponnese Island”). The Greek government's future actions for the development of wine tourism include: 1. Creation of a digital platform for wine tourism to enhance the accessibility and promotion of wine-related experiences and destinations. 2. Continuous upgrading of the "Winery Open to the Public" Sign, ensuring high-quality standards and enhancing the overall visitor experience. 3. Establishment of a National Wine Tourism Council aimed at fostering collaborations among stakeholders in Greek wine tourism for long-term sectoral growth. 4. Strengthening the international presence of Greek wines through agreements with international partners, expanding export opportunities and promoting Greek wine worldwide. 5. Utilizing the Recovery & Resilience Fund to invest in infrastructure and promote agrotourism and gastronomic tourism, enhancing the overall tourism experience and attracting more visitors interested in wine and food-related experiences. These actions demonstrate the commitment of the Greek government to support and develop wine tourism, recognizing its potential to contribute significantly to the country's economy and cultural heritage. By investing in the sector and fostering collaborations, the government aims to brand Greece as a prominent wine tourism destination on the global stage. 5. Conclusion In the perspective of sustainable development within the framework of “Re-imagining tourism” in Greece, oenotourism, as a special interest form of tourism (e.g., cultural tourism, ecotourism) represents a small-scale intervention in the environment, showing respect for local ecosystems. In this context, it is important to promote policies and initiatives for oenotourism activities with respect to local culture, the environment, and people. For example, providing incentives for visiting wineries and businesses with environmentally friendly transportation, adopting sustainable tourism practices, participating in Best Wine Tourism Awards (Great Wine Capitals, n.d.), and promoting the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy, in the operation of facilities, etc. In the contemporary globalized environment of uncertainty and continuous challenges and crises, sustainable development is of strategic importance for achieving business goals and contributing to the creation of a society characterized by justice, equality, and prosperity. In this context, the adoption of a common language for sustainable development provided by the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 is urgent. Furthermore, it is essential to link all components of the wine value chain with the aim of creating the ideal tourist product that enhances local identity. For this purpose, it would be beneficial for oenotourism experiences to be based on local agricultural product varieties, the cultural landscape, and the artisanal heritage of each region. All tourism

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law products developed in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) contribute to sustainability, environmental protection, job creation, and economic development. REFERENCES (1) Britannica (2023a). Dionysus, Greek mythology, at (2) Britannica (2023b). Satyr and Silenus, Greek mythology, at (3) Destination Crete (2018). Οινοποιεία [Wineries], στο (4) European Commission (2023). Geographical indications and quality schemes explained, at (5) Great Wine Capitals (n.d.). At (6) INSETE (2022). «Ελληνικός Τουρισμός 2030, Σχέδια Δράσης», στο (in Greek). (7) Karafolas, S. (2007). Wine roads in Greece: A cooperation for the development of local tourism in rural areas. Journal of Rural Cooperation, 35(1), pp. 71-90. (8) Mylonopoulos, D. (2022). Tourism Law in Greece, pp. 233-243, In: Torres, C., Janvier Melgosa Arcos, J-M., Jégouzo, L., Franceschelli, V. & Morandi, F. (eds). Tourism law in Europe, ESHTE, Portugal. at (9) N. 4447/2016 (ΦΕΚ Α’241) «Χωρικός σχεδιασμός - Βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη και άλλες διατάξεις» [Spatial planning - Sustainable development and other provisions] (in Greek). (10) Peloponnese Wine Roads (2023). Peloponnese Wine Roads, at (11) Psalms, 104: 15 KJV, Biblegateway, at KJV (12) UNWTO (2023). Gastronomy and Wine Tourism, at (13) VisitGreece (2022). Δρόμοι κρασιού στην Ελλάδα [Wine roads in Greece], Available at: (14) Γεραρή, Μ.Φ. (2007). Το κρασί στην αρχαία Ελλάδα [Wine in Ancient Greece], 07.05.2007, at (in Greek). (15) Έγγραφο ΑΜ 19496/11-10-2022 “Παροχή στοιχείων, Υπουργείο Τουρισμού, Διεύθυνση Ποιοτικών Προτύπων, Τμήμα Ποιοτικού Ελέγχου & Διαμόρφωσης Προτύπων Ποιότητας” [Ministry of Tourism, Directorate of Quality Standards, Department of Quality Control & Formation of Quality Standards]. (in Greek).

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira (16) Ένωση οινοποιών-αμπελουργών νήσων Αιγαίου (2017), [Union of Winemakers and Viticulturists of the Aegean Islands, at (17) ΚΥΑ με αριθμ. 13143/2018 απόφαση (ΦΕΚ Β’3233) «Τροποποίηση της αριθμ. 1746/21.01.2015 (Β΄ 135) κοινής υπουργικής απόφασης των Υπουργών Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης και Τροφίμων και Τουρισμού «Καθορισμός των προδιαγραφών για τις υπηρεσίες του άρθρου 25 του ν. 4276/2014 (Α΄ 155), των τεχνικών, λειτουργικών και ειδικών προδιαγραφών των εγκαταστάσεων των οινοτουριστικών επιχειρήσεων» [Amendment of No. 1746/21.01.2015 (Β΄ 135) joint ministerial decision of the Ministers of Rural Development and Food and Tourism]. (in Greek). (18) ΜΙΝΩΣ (1959). Φωτογραφικό υλικό, [Photographic Archive], στο (in Greek). (19) Μοίρα, Π. (2022). Τουρισμός. Ιστορία, εξέλιξη, προοπτικές [Tourism. History, development, prospects], Θεσσαλονίκη: εκδ. Τζιόλα [in Greek]. (20) Μυλωνόπουλος, Δ. (2021). Τουριστικό Δίκαιο [Tourism law], Γ΄ έκδοση, Αθήνα: Νομική Βιβλιοθήκη [in Greek]. (21) Ν. 4276/2014 (ΦΕΚ Α’155) «Απλούστευση διαδικασιών λειτουργίας τουριστικών επιχειρήσεων και τουριστικών υποδομών, ειδικές μορφές τουρισμού και άλλες διατάξεις» [Simplification of procedures for the operation of tourism businesses and tourism infrastructure, special forms of tourism, and other provisions]. (in Greek). (22) Ν. 4495/2017 (ΦΕΚ Α’167) «Έλεγχος και προστασία του Δομημένου Περιβάλλοντος και άλλες διατάξεις» [Control and protection of the Built Environment and other provisions]. (in Greek). (23) Ν. 4582/2018 (ΦΕΚ Α’208) «Θεματικός τουρισμός – Ειδικές μορφές τουρισμού – Ρυθμίσεις για τον εκσυγχρονισμό του θεσμικού πλαισίου στον τομέα του τουρισμού και της τουριστικής εκπαίδευσης – Στήριξη τουριστικής επιχειρηματικότητας και άλλες διατάξεις» [Thematic tourism – Special forms of tourism – Arrangements for the modernization of the institutional framework in the field of tourism and tourism education – Support for tourism entrepreneurship and other provisions]. (in Greek). (24) Ν. 4759/2020 (ΦΕΚ Α’245) «Εκσυγχρονισμός της Χωροταξικής και Πολεοδομικής Νομοθεσίας και άλλες διατάξεις» [Modernization of Spatial and Urban Planning Legislation and other provisions]. (in Greek). (25) Οινοποιοί Βορείου Ελλάδος (2023). Σχετικά με την Ένωση Οινοποιών Β. Ελλάδος [About the Union of Winemakers of Northern Greece], στο (in Greek). (26) Πλούταρχος Τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν συμπόσιον [Of the seven wise men symposium] (Ἠθικὰ 146b-164d) (154c-154f), μεταφ. Λυπουρλής Δ. Ψηφιακή Βιβλιοθήκη της αρχαίας ελληνικής γραμματείας, ΜΝΗΜΟΣΥΝΗ [in Greek]. At =12 (in Greek). (27) Σκιαδάς, Ε. (2020). Πως γεννήθηκε η επιτυχημένη «Γιορτή Κρασιού» στο Δαφνί (1953), Τα Αθηναϊκά, 28/03/2020, στο (in Greek). (28) ΥΑ με αριθμ. 1746/2015 (ΦΕΚ Β’135) «Καθορισμός των προδιαγραφών για τις υπηρεσίες του άρθρου 25 του Ν. 4276/2014 (ΦΕΚ Α’155), των τεχνικών, λειτουργικών και ειδικών προδιαγραφών των εγκαταστάσεων των οινοτουριστικών επιχειρήσεων» [Definition of the specifications for the services of article 25 of Law 4276/2014

1st World Congress on Wine Tourism and the Law (Government Gazette A'155), the technical, operational and special specifications of the facilities of the wine tourism businesses] (in Greek). (29) Υπουργείο Τουρισμού της Ελλάδας (2021). Έρευνα σε επιχειρήσεις του Μητρώου Οινοτουριστικών Επιχειρήσεων που διαθέτουν Σήμα Επισκέψιμου Οινοποιείου, [Research on enterprises of the Register of Wine Tourism Enterprises that have the Visitable Winery Mark]. Διεύθυνση Ποιοτικών Προτύπων, Τμήμα Ποιοτικού Ελέγχου & Διαμόρφωσης Προτύπων Ποιότητας (in Greek).

Contact Estoril Higher Institute for Tourism and Hotel Studies IJTTHL Celebrating five years of the first publication Vincenzo Franceschelli, On Tourism Law | Quest for general principles, Alejandro Corral Sastre, A new Administrative Law for a new Tourism: now or never, Jonas Thyberg, The Package Travel Act and the Covid19 pandemic, Caterina del Federico, The use of artificial intelligence in the travel and hospitality industry. Civil liability profiles, "We are celebrating the 500 anniversary of the discovery of the Magellan strait with two online publications. On October 21, the launch of Derecho del Turismo en Las Américas brought together colleagues from all Latin American countries. On the same day, the Collective Commentary about the New Package Travel Directive, with colleagues from the then 28 Member States. More recently, Competition Law in Tourism and Tourism Law in Europe are publications demonstrating this group's dynamism. The pandemic has not broken the bonds that have united and unite us. Here we are again here in Lisbon, more numerous and more motivated than ever, to consecrate what will be the voice of our group: The new international journal of Tourism Law, The International Journal of Tourism, Travel and Hospitality Law.” • Vincenzo Franceschelli, The Lisbon Group and International Tourism Law Five years after the first international publication (The New Package Travel Directive, October 2017) at the ESHTE | INATEL International Conference in October 2022, bringing together 50 speakers from 27 countries, a new project was announced: The International Journal of Tourism, Travel and Hospitality Law (IJTTHL). IJTTHL brings together several universities and is published both in print and online. The central part will be in English but will have an IberoAmerican chapter, and the texts are immediately available through Pre-Print. Monika Jurkova, Liability of online platforms in the tourism sector, https:// Francesco Torchia, Tourism enterprise and cultural heritage protection, as a legal instrument for valorization of the territory and of the person, https://,-as-a-legal-for-valorization-of-the-Territory-and-ofthe-Person-by-Francesco-Torchia/ Valérie Augros, Holiday lettings in France: tips and tricks, Holidays-lettings-in-France---Tips-and-tricks-by-V.-Augros/ Sarah Prager, Competition law: online travel agents and airlines, https://,--Competition-Law---OTAs-and-airlines/ Andrej Micovic, Legal Tech and Online Dispute Resolution, Microsoft-Word---A.-Micovic---Legal-Tech-and-ODR-in-Tourism./ Pilar Juana Garcia Saura, The inspection of tourist accommodation by Public Administrations: problems with the use of the robot inspector (web spider) and the responsibility of collaborative platforms, Michael Wukoschitz, A Wicked Deed’s Curse – Will X v Kuoni change the Organiser’s Liability?,,---M.-Wukoschitz/ Bertold Bär-Bouyssiere, Sustainability and Article 101(1) TFEU, Exploring (almost) virgin territory, Tatjana Josipović, Modernisation of information requirements for consumers on online tourism services market, Matija Damjan, The new online platform rules and the accommodation booking services, Ilie Dumitru, EU legislation and contractual relationship between the travel package organizer and the air carrier in case of charter flights. Liability for cancelled and delayed charter flights, João Almeida Vidal, Arbitration and tourism: a field to explore, https://