Legal Approaches for Sustainable Wine Tourism Development by Dimitrios Mylonopoulos and Polyxeni Moira

Dimitrios Mylonopoulos | Polyxeni Moira enjoy a more authentic and engaging experience, surrounded by vineyard landscapes, participating in the wine production processes, and tasting local gastronomic products. As a result, wine tourism promotes the sustainability of the region and contributes to the preservation of cultural heritage and the environment. 3. Legal Framework of Wine Tourism (Oenotourism) 3.1. Definition Law no. 4582/2018 under the title "Thematic Tourism" identifies sustainable forms of tourism as those that attract visitors-tourists with specific interests, who seek to live authentic experiences showing respect for the environment. These forms of tourism encourage the interaction of visitors-tourists with the natural environment, the human factor, regions, and municipalities, promoting economic and social development and highlighting the unique cultural elements of each place. The characteristics that define the concept of thematic tourism are sustainable tourism development, special interests of visitors-tourists, authenticity of experiences, respect for the natural and cultural environment, human interaction and communication, local economic development, and local social development, in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals (Μοίρα, 2022: 251). In the same spirit, Article 4 of Law no. 4582/2018 defines wine tourism as an activity of rural tourism. The law reiterates the definition of wine tourism provided by Law no. 4276/2014, which is “…form of tourism that involves the provision of services of reception, guided tours, accommodation, and catering services in spaces functionally integrated with wineries or wine-producing facilities (vineyards)”. We observe that the legislator has incorporated wine tourism activities into rural tourism, while considering agrotourism as an independent form of thematic tourism. Additionally, it categorizes cultural tourism separately, overlooking the fact that gastronomic tourism, wine tourism, agrotourism, and fishing tourism in fact constitute cultural tourism as they allow the visitor to experience the culture of the farmer, the fisherman, the winemaker, etc. In fact, these activities are rather complementary to each other, and it is difficult to seek them individually, as the products used for preparing the food are agricultural, and wine is also an agricultural product, an essential component of the dining experience (Figure 3). According to the Law, a wine tourism facility is characterized as a winemaking or wineproducing establishment, provided that it meets the following conditions: a) within the boundaries of the facility, services are offered, such as guided tours, reception and hospitality in non-primary tourist accommodations, or catering, or a combination of these services, and b) it has spaces and facilities of specific standards that ensure visitation. Once again, we can observe the legislator's intention to develop wine tourism as a small-scale tourism activity showing respect for the environment.